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Fundamental Chapter 5

Q. What is Internet? What are various applications of Internet?


Internet is the network of networks.  It links computers of every model and operating system together to facilitates the sharing of information.  The variety of information served, varies from the current research documents to the latest sports and news features.  The term internet can be thought of as shorthand for INTERconnected NETworks.


One can find many applications on the internet.  Some of the important current strategic uses are given below:
1.      On-line communication
E-Mail and chatting is extensively used now-a-days around the world to communicate with each other.
2.      On-line Shopping
On-line shopping is also becoming very popular.  Many people instead of going round and wasting their precious time in shopping just sjsdjdjf on the system and place the order for the require stuff.
3.      Video Conferencing
A new emerging service on the Internet which allows a group of users located in different parts of the world to communicate with each other as if they re sitting in a single room.  In this way one can discuss any topic sitting anywhere in the world.
4.      Advertising and Publishing
The Internet has become the first global venue for advertising and publishing information.
5.      Product Promotion
Internet is the cheapest means to promote ones product
6.      Technical Support/Customer Support Service
One can get technical support for product one is using.  Many organizations provides customer support.
7.      Feedback
Commercial organizations are using Internet to gather customer satisfaction o existing products, market opportunities of new products, and ideas for new products.
8.      Online Registration and Examination
Many universities and institutions provide training and also online enrolment forms.
Some companies like Thompson prometric, VUE provides online examination for the various products of software & hardware.
9.      Software Sharing
Many software developing organizations provides trial software versions on the Internet.
10. Group Discussion
A number of Newsgroups are available on the Internet which allows to exchange views on topics of common interest.

Q. Write a short note on the following:-
i.  Web Browser
ii. World Wide Web
iii. Internet Protocol


A software application that provides a graphical view of the Internet is called a Web Browser.
A Web Browser interprets the markup of files in HTML, formats them into We pages, and displays them to the end user.  Some browsers also permit end users to send and receive e-mail, read newsgroups, and play sound or video files embedded in Web documents.
Web browser give you access to Web sits, which comprise Web pages.  A Web page may contain text, graphics, animations, sounds, movies and a variety of interactive elements.  A Web browser makes it easy to navigate (or “surf”) the Web and to download items.  Some of the popular Web browsers are:
1.      Microsoft Internet Explorer

It is Microsoft a new browser Internet Explorer, also as Explorer.  Explorer runs on all version of Windows operating system, and Macintosh.

2.      Netscape Navigator
Netscape navigator is available for Windows, Macintosh, and for many different versions of UNIX running the X Window System.

3.      Lynx
Lynx is an excellent browse for text-only Internet connections such as dial-up UNIX accounts.  Lynx gives you nothing but the text and the links.

4.      Mosaic
Mosaic was the first full-color graphical browser.  ncSA Mosaic is free or personal use and comes in versions for Windows, Macintosh, and UNIX (the X Window System).
5. Google Chrome 
Google Chrome is very popular Net Browser and goes popular day by day. It is launched by Google at Sep. 2, 2008.

6. Mozilla Firefox
               Mozilla Firefox is yet another very famous Net Browser. Launched in Sep. 23, 2002.

7. Opera 
Opera is another famous Net Browser used across the world.Launched in April 10, 1995.

Most major browsers offer a number of toolbar buttons to help you navigate the Web.  The exact names and functions of these various buttons vary from browser to browser, but the most-used buttons are usually the same.  Given below are the name and functions of the common buttons.


A system for exploring the Internet by using hyperlinks.  When you use a web browser, the web appears as a collection of text, pictures, sounds, and digital movies.

The World Wide Web was developed in 1989 by Tim Berners-Lee of the European Particle Physics Lab (CERN) in Switzerland.  The initial purpose of the Web was to use networked hypertext to facilitate communication among its members, who were located in several countries.  Word was soon spread beyond CERN, and a rapid growth in the number of both developers and users ensued.  In addition to hypertext, the Web began to incorporate graphics, video, and sound.  The use of the Web has now reached global proportions.
The World Wide Web (abbreviated as the Web or WWW or W3) is probably the most popular place to be on the Internet.  It is the factor most responsible for the huge growth of the Internet.  The World Wide Web is an easy to use method for storing and retrieving the information that resides on systems in the Internet.  Three developments fueled the growth of the Web:
·        Hypertext – the ability to link to other documents.
·        Hypermedia – the ability to include text, audio, video, images and graphics in a document.
·        Graphical (GUI) Browsers to view the Hypertext/Hypermedia documents.
W3 is a system of Internet servers that supports hypertext to access several Internet protocols on a single interface.  Almost every protocol type available on the Internet is accessible on the Web.  This includes e-mail FTP, Telnet, and Usenet News.  In addition to these, the World Wide Web has its own protocol: Hyper Text Transfer Protocol, or HTTP.
The operation of the Web relies primarily on hypertext as its mean of information retrieval.  hypertext is a document containing words that connect to other documents.  These words are called links and are selectable by the user.  A single hypertext document can contain links to many documents,.  In the context of the Web, words or graphics may serve as links to other documents, images, video, and sound.  Links may or may to follow a logical path, as each connection is programmed by the creator of the source document.  Overall, the Web contains a complex virtual web of connections among a vast number of documents, graphics, videos, and sounds.
Producing hypertext for the Web is accomplished by creating documents with a languages called Hyper
Text Markup Language, or HTML With HTML, tags are placed within the text to accomplish document formatting, visual features such as font size, italics and bold, and the creation of hypertext links.  Graphics and multimedia may also be incorporated into an HTML document.  HTML is an evolving language, with new tags being added as each upgrade of the language is developed and released.  The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C). led by Web founder Time Berners-Lee.  Coordinates the efforts of standardizing HTML.  The W3C now calls the language XHTML and considers it to be an application of the XML language standard.
The WWW uses special software called a Browser (client) and TCP/IP, HTTP and a Web Server to function.
·   TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol) is the communication protocol used by the Internet and is a must for the World Wide Web to function.
·        HTTP (Hyper Text Transfer Protocol) is a protocol which makes the communication possible between the Web Server and a Web Browser.  It is the protocol used to transfer information over the WWW.
·        Web Server is a special software, which runs on a computer and responds to requests made by other computers on the network.
·        A Web Browser is a special software application that provides a graphical view of the Internet.


The WWW is based on three mechanisms that are uses to make resources available to users.  These are:
·        Protocols
Protocols are the standard to be followed for communication.
The computers on a network have to be able to talk to each other.  To do that they use protocols that are just the rules or agreements on how to communicate.  HyperText Transfer Protocol (http) is the protocol used by the Internet.
·        Addresses
The WWW follows a uniform naming scheme to access resources on the Web called URL (Uniform Resource Locator).
This addressing system is used to identify pages and resources on the Web.  An Internet or Web address (called as URL, or Uniform Resource Locator) typically is composed of four parts:
·        A protocol name (a protocol is a set of rules and standards that enable computers to exchange information)
·        The location of the site
·        The name of the organization that maintains the site
·        A suffix that identifies the kind of organization it is (such a .com for a commercial organization)

For example, the address http://www.zking.in.in provides the following information:

http     This Web sever uses Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP).
www   This site is one the World Wide Web.
ZKing           This is the name of the site i.e. host name
in  stands for country location India
When you are viewing a Web page, the page’s address appears in the Address bar in Internet Explorer. 

·        HTML
Hyper Text Markup Language is used to create web pages that can be accessed over the Web.
The HTML document is created using the HTML tags and elements.  The file is saved with the .htm or .html file name extension on the Web Server.  The Client Browser sends a request for a page to the Web Server using the URL of the page.  The Server processes the request and sends back the requested HTML document.  The document is displayed in the browser or client.
Further the programming languages such as Java, JavaScript, Visual Basic.  Cold Fusion and XML re extending the capabilities of the Web.

Q. What is E-Commerce? What is the frame work of E-Commerce? Also describe the advantage and disadvantages of E-Commerce. What are security concern with E-Commerce?


e-Commerce, or Electronic Commerce, is a general term for any type of business, or commercial transaction, that involves the transfer of information across the Internet.
Electronic Commerce has expanded rapidly over the past five years and this growth is forecast to continue or even accelerate.  E-Commerce is associated with the buying and selling of information, products and services via computer networks.  It is a new way of conducting, managing and executing business transactions using computer and telecommunication network.
Essentially, doing business on the Web can be broken down into five main requirements.
·        On-Line Store
The obvious requirement is an on-line store, or commerce-enabled Web site where goods or services can be described and selected.
·        Payment Processing
While it is possible to run an on-line store without accepting on-line payments, this is cumbersome and rarely successful.  Accepting on-line payments is therefore essential – and at the moment this means credit cards.
·        Shipping/Order Fulfillment
You’re made your sale and now you’ve got to deliver the goods.  Just package them up and ship them off.
·        Customer Service
Support, Complaints, Returns – the biggest complaint about E-Commerce is the poor level of customer service in the event of problems.
·        Promotion
Even if you do everything else right, without successful promotion your on-line business will fail.


Many technologies can fit within the definition of E-Commerce, the most important ones are as follows:
·        Electronic Data Interchange (EDI)
EDI is the computer to computer exchange of structured information in a standard electronic format.  Information stored on one computer is translated by software programs into standard ED format for transmission to one or more trading partners.  The trading partners computers, in turn, translate the information using software into a form they can understand.
EDI generally requires each supplier and customer to set up a dedicated data link between them.
·        Bar Codes
Bar codes are vertical black and white lines of varying thickness printed on the items which identifies the price, data of manufacture and other relevant information.  This system is called as universal product code (UPC).
Bar code reader is a special device designed to read bar coder printed on the products like books, household products, containers, packed food etc.  The bar code reader are photo electric scanner that read these bar code, sends the data in the compute which in turn sends the data to POS (point of sales) terminal about the price and other relevant in formation and then customer gets the printed output in the form of computerized receipt.
·        Electronic mail
E-Mail (Electronic Mail)enables users to send and receive messages to other users through Internet via computer anywhere in the world.
·        Internet
Internet is the decentralized global network of millions of diverse computers and computer networks, that connects government, academic and business institutions.
·        World Wide Web (WWW)
WWW is the universe of information available via HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol).  The WWW is an easy to use method for storing and retrieving the information that resides on systems in the Internet.
·        Product data exchange (PDE)
PDE is the exchange of data (usually in the graphically form – like pictures, drawings and CAD files) that is needed to describe a product.  Data may be also character based (letters and numbers) – like bills of material, manufacturing instructions, test results etc.
·        Electronic forms
Electronic forms is a technology that combine the familiarity of paper forms with the power of storing information in digital form.  This facilitate storage of database, automatic information routing and integration into other applications.

1.      Increase sales and decrease costs of the goods.
2.      Advertising on the Web can make a big/small firm’s promotional message reach out to potential customers all over the world.
3.   A firm can reach narrow market segments that are widely scattered throughout the world.
4.      Low cost medium disseminating information and processing transactions.
5.      Provides the buyers a wider range of choices than traditional commerce.
6.      Help protect against frauds and theft losses because electronic payments can be easier to monitor than payments made by cheques.
7.      Enables people to work from home and has an added benefit of reduction in traffic and pollution caused by employee who have to communicate to office.

1.     Things like food, jewelry, antiques etc. can never turn to e-commerce because it is not possible to inspect them from remote locations.
2.   Many firms have had trouble recruiting and retaining employees with the technological, design, and business process skills needed to create an effective electronic commerce presence.
3.      Frauds are not completely eliminated in the e-commerce transactions.
4.      Cyber laws are not properly enacted and the existing ones are not clearly defined.


Following are the types of E-Commerce:
1.      B2B (Business to Business)
2.      B2C (Business to Customer)
3.      C2C (Customer to Customer)

B2B stands for Business-to-Business and refers to Electronic Commerce between businesses rather than between a business and a consumer.
Businesses can often deal with hundreds or thousands of other businesses, either as customers or suppliers.  Carrying out these transactions electronically gives obvious advantages over traditional methods.  It’s faster, cheaper and more convenient.
By business to customer (B2C) e-commerce we mean e-commerce involving an individual and a shop selling goods Electronic mails, virtual storefronts allow individual consumers to browse for products and shop using credit cards.  It is more like an extension of catalogue shopping, through mail order and telephone ordering using credit cards for making payments.  This form of e-commerce is Internet based, with unrestricted access to consumers.  An example of an Indian store is flipkart.com.

This type of e-commerce takes place on the Internet, without any business as middleman.
You put an announcement at any of the “Consumer Exchange” website that you are selling, say second hand Laptops.  Others with similar interest then “bid” against each other for the object, so you get a price you normally couldn’t dream of.
One of the most – successful online auctioneers is e-bay (www.ebay.com) essentially a national classified listings in USA, e-bay had more than 900,000 for sale in 1086 categories in 2000.  The Web site received 140 million hits a week.
·        Steal confidential documents not intended for them.
·        Execute commands on the server host machine, allowing them to modify the system.
·        Gain information about the Web server’s host machine that will allow them to break into the system.
·        Launch denial-of-service attacks, rendering the machine temporarily unusable.
Browser-side risks, including:
·        Active content that crashes the browser, damages the user’s system, breaches the user’s privacy, or merely creates an annoyance.
·        The misuse of personal information knowingly or unknowingly provided by the end-user.
Interception of network data sent from browser to server or vice versa via network eavesdropping.  Eavesdroppers can operate from any point on the pathway between browser and server including:
·        The network on the browser’s side of the connection.
·        The network on the server’s side of the connection (including intranets).
·        The end-user’s Internet service provider (ISP).
·        The server’s ISP.
·        Either ISPs’ regional access provider.
It’s important to realize that “secure” browsers and servers are only designed to protect confidential information against network eavesdropping.  Without system security on both browser and server sides, confidential documents are vulnerable to interception.


If you are a Webmaster, system administrator, or are otherwise involved with the administration of a network, the single most important step you can take to increase your site’s security is to create a written security policy.  This security policy should concisely lay out your organization’s policies with regard to: who is allowed to use the system what they are allowed to do (different groups may be granted different levels of access) procedures for granting access to the system procedures for revoking access (e.g. when an employee leaves) what constitutes acceptable use of the system.remote and local login methods system monitoring procedures protocols for responding to suspected security breaches.

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