   ### C Chapter 5

Q. Explain the operators in C.
Ans:
An operator is a symbol that is apply on to operands(variables) to perform specific operations.

OR

An operator is a symbol that tells the compiler to perform specific
mathematical or logical functions/operation we want to perfrom. C language is rich in built-in operators and provides the following types of operators −

1. Arithmetic Operators
2. Relational Operators
3. Logical Operators
4. Bitwise Operators
5. Assignment Operators
6. Conditional Operator
7. Misc/Special Operators

Arithmetic Operators
e.g. if a=10; b=20;
Examples

+                     Adds two operands. e.g. A + B = 30
Subtracts second operand from the first. e.g. A − B = -10
*                     Multiplies both operands. e.g. A * B = 200
/                     Divides the operands. e.g.  B / A = 2
%                    Modulus Operator and remainder of after an integer division.e.g. B % A = 0
++                   Increment operator increases the numeric value by one. e.g. A++ = 11
--                   Decrement operator decreases the integer value by one.e.g. A-- = 9

Relational Operators
e.g. if a=10; b=20;
Examples

==   Checks if the values of two operands are equal or not. If yes, then the condition becomes true.   (A == B) is not true.
!=  Checks if the values of two operands are equal or not. If the values are not equal, then the                    condition becomes true. (A != B) is true.
>  Checks if the value of left operand is greater than the value of right operand. If yes, then the
condition becomes true. (A > B) is not true.
< Checks if the value of left operand is less than the value of right operand. If yes, then the \
condition becomes true. (A < B) is true.
>= Checks if the value of left operand is greater than or equal to the value of right operand. If yes,
then the condition becomes true. (A >= B) is not true.
<= Checks if the value of left operand is less than or equal to the value of right operand. If yes, then
the condition becomes true. (A <= B) is true.

Logical Operators

Examples

&&     This operator called AND Operator it is use when we want to check two conditions
simultaneously.  It return True if both conditions are true if any one is false it return False.
||    This operator called  OR Operator it is use when we want to check two conditions
simultaneously. It return True if both or any one condition is true. It return False if both
conditions are False.
!  Called Logical NOT Operator. It is used to reverse the logical state of its operand. If a condition
is true, then Logical NOT operator will make it false. !(A && B) is true.

Bitwise Operators
Bitwise operator works on bits and perform bit-by-bit operation. The truth tables for &, |, and ^ is as follows −

x y x & y x | y x ^ y
0 0 0 0 0
0 1 0 1 1
1 1 1 1 0
1 0 0 1 1

Assume A = 60 and B = 13 in binary format :−

A = 0011 1100

B = 0000 1101

-----------------

A&B = 0000 1100

A|B = 0011 1101

A^B = 0011 0001

~A = 1100 0011

The following table lists the bitwise operators supported by C. Assume variable 'A' holds 60 and variable 'B' holds 13, then :−

Example

& Binary AND Operator copies a bit to the result if it exists in both operands.
(A & B) = 12, e.g., 0000 1100
| Binary OR Operator copies a bit if it exists in either operand.
(A | B) = 61, e.g., 0011 1101
^ Binary XOR Operator copies the bit if it is set in one operand but not both. (A ^ B) = 49, e.g.,
0011 0001
~ Binary Ones Complement Operator is unary and has the effect of 'flipping' bits. (~A ) = -61,                e.g.,. 1100 0011 in 2's complement form.
<< Binary Left Shift Operator. The left operands value is moved left by the number of bits specified        by the right operand. A << 2 = 240 e.g., 1111 0000
>> Binary Right Shift Operator. The left operands value is moved right by the number of bits
specified by the right operand. A >> 2 = 15 e.g., 0000 1111

Assignment Operators

Examples

= Simple assignment operator. Assigns values from right side operands to left side operand C = A         + B will assign the value of A + B to C
+= Add AND assignment operator. It adds the right operand to the left operand and assign the result         to the left operand. C += A is equivalent to C = C + A
-= Subtract AND assignment operator. It subtracts the right operand from the left operand and
assigns the result to the left operand. C -= A is equivalent to C = C - A
*= Multiply AND assignment operator. It multiplies the right operand with the left operand and
assigns the result to the left operand. C *= A is equivalent to C = C * A
/= Divide AND assignment operator. It divides the left operand with the right operand and assigns
the result to the left operand. C /= A is equivalent to C = C / A
%= Modulus AND assignment operator. It takes modulus using two operands and assigns the result
to the left operand. C %= A is equivalent to C = C % A
<<= Left shift AND assignment operator. C <<= 2 is same as C = C << 2
>>= Right shift AND assignment operator. C >>= 2 is same as C = C >> 2
&= Bitwise AND assignment operator. C &= 2 is same as C = C & 2
^= Bitwise exclusive OR and assignment operator. C ^= 2 is same as C = C ^ 2
|= Bitwise inclusive OR and assignment operator. C |= 2 is same as C = C | 2

Conditional Expression
?:    syntax      condition?true:false;

e.g. max=a>b?a:b;
if a is greater then b then a is assign to max else b is assign to max.

Misc/Special Operators (sizeof & ternary)

sizeof() Returns the size of a variable. sizeof(a), where a is integer, will return 2.
& Returns the address of a variable. &a; returns the actual address of the variable.
* Pointer to a variable. *a;